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Expert available on accusations of Apple Card gender bias

Northwestern expert says that differentiating ‘creditworthiness’ and ‘gender’ could be impossible

Goldman Sachs announced Monday that it will reevaluate credit limits for Apple Card users on a case-by-case basis amid allegations of gender bias. Joel Shapiro, a Northwestern University professor of data analytics, is available to comment on how, depending on the data, differentiating between “creditworthiness” and the gender of the individual might be impossible.

Shapiro is a clinical associate professor of data analytics at Kellogg School of Management. He specializes in artificial intelligence and data-driven enterprises and transformations. Shapiro also studies the use of data and analytics to improve decision-making at the individual or organization level. He can be reached by contacting Molly Lynch at 773-505-9719 or

Quote from Professor Shapiro:

"Goldman Sachs can say that credit is based on creditworthiness, not gender, but if the model is fed by data that implicates women’s historically inequitable access to building their own credit, then differentiating ‘creditworthiness’ and ‘gender’ might be nearly impossible."